The rock is dating

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Many types of luminescence techniques are utilized in geology, including optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and thermoluminescence (TL).

Thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence are used in archaeology to date 'fired' objects such as pottery or cooking stones, and can be used to observe sand migration.

The science of geochronology is the prime tool used in the discipline of chronostratigraphy, which attempts to derive absolute age dates for all fossil assemblages and determine the geologic history of the Earth and extraterrestrial bodies.

By measuring the amount of radioactive decay of a radioactive isotope with a known half-life, geologists can establish the absolute age of the parent material.

any method of determining the age of earth materials or objects of organic origin based on measurement of either short-lived radioactive elements or the amount of a long-lived radioactive element plus its decay product.

A method for determining the age of an object based on the concentration of a particular radioactive isotope contained within it.

A sequence of paleomagnetic poles (usually called virtual geomagnetic poles), which are already well defined in age, constitutes an apparent polar wander path (APWP).

Such path is constructed for a large continental block.

Cl) produced by cosmic rays interacting with Earth materials as a proxy for the age at which a surface, such as an alluvial fan, was created.Radiocarbon dating is one kind of radiometric dating, used for determining the age of organic remains that are less than 50,000 years old.For inorganic matter and for older materials, isotopes of other elements, such as potassium, uranium, and strontium, are used.By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved.Geochronology is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages.

A number of radioactive isotopes are used for this purpose, and depending on the rate of decay, are used for dating different geological periods.

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