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People crowded together in towns became more vulnerable to epidemics.
The Black Death nearly halved Britain's population in the mid-14th century.
100 new towns were created in England and Wales between 10. Look for place-names like Newton, Newport and Newmarket.
As the Normans pressed into Ireland they founded inland towns, such as Trim, as well as building on Viking foundations along the coast.
Some were beside former Roman towns well-sited for trade.
suffix which provides a clue to their trading status.
The estate had coal which could be exported to Ireland.
Sir John Lowther laid out a grid of streets in the 1680s.
Roman towns were laid out on a grid plan, with a forum in the centre forming a market place, surrounded by shops, offices and a . The early Anglo-Saxon arrivals had no use for Roman towns, living as they did at subsistence level.
Others were new creations, often beside a royal castle, such as Roxburgh.
New towns continued to spring up in the 13th century, for example Salisbury, created to serve the new cathedral begun in 1220.
Meanwhile the first burghs were formed in Scotland.
Some were existing centres like Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Perth and Stirling, which were granted a degree of self-government by royal charter.Most towns in Ulster date from this period, including Belfast and Londonderry, the last walled city built in western Europe (see the vols. Some of the new towns were more successful than others.