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Similarly, the first cache of the Dead Sea Scrolls was discovered in 1947 by a Bedouin looking for a stray animal.

These accidental finds often lead to important excavations.

There are, of course, many different types of archaeological sites, and there is no one set of precepts and rules that will apply to excavation as a whole.

Some sites, such as temples, forts, roads, villages, ancient cities, palaces, and industrial remains, are easily visible on the surface of the ground.

A temple of Mithras in the City of London, Viking settlements in Dublin and at Århus, Denmark, and the original 6th-century-The role of chance in the discovery of archaeological sites and portable finds is considerable.

Farmers have often unearthed archaeological finds while plowing their fields, and accidental discovery by construction crews is common.

Emergency excavations then have to be mounted to rescue whatever knowledge of the past can be obtained before these remains are obliterated forever.

Partial destruction of cities in western Europe by bombing during World War II allowed rescue excavations to take place before rebuilding.

Large sites are not usually dug out entirely, although a moderate-sized round barrow may be completely moved by excavation.

The wide range of techniques employed by the archaeologist vary in their application to different kinds of sites.

The opening of the tomb chamber in an Egyptian pyramid is, for example, a very different operation from the excavation of a tell in Mesopotamia or a barrow grave in western Europe.

Years of training in the field, first as an ordinary digger, then as a site supervisor, with spells of work as recorder, surveyor, and photographer, are required before anyone can organize and direct an excavation.

Most museums, universities, and government archaeological departments organize training excavations.

The very words (1956) might appear to give credence to that view.

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