Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal of protein Submissive online chat
The DLS technique has been the most widely used to monitor size change because it directly measures hydrodynamic sizes of protein-coated nanoparticles in the biological solution with nanometer precision.
Furthermore, the zeta potentials of protein-coated nanoparticles mostly appeared as a negative surface charge although the nanoparticles had different original surface chemistries.
When we study the endocytosis and exocytosis of nanoparticles, cells are treated with the nanoparticles in the culture medium containing various serum proteins.
Most of the nanoparticles are first coated with the serum proteins and then met with the plasma membrane of cells.
Here, we review the recent research on the endocytosis and exocytosis of functionalized nanoparticles based on various sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries.
Thus, size uniformity of nanoparticles should be considered when the effect of physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles on their interactions with biological systems is examined.Because the formation of nanoparticle–protein complexes is mainly determined by surface chemistries of the nanoparticles, it is important to investigate which surface chemistry is the most favorable to form the nanoparticle–protein complex.Therefore, natural nanoparticle–protein complexes formed in biological environments would allow us to study how individual nanoparticles interact with various types of cells.Nanoparticles exposed to the bloodstream interact with opsonin proteins.When opsonin proteins attach to the surface of nanoparticles, they allow macrophages of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) to easily recognize the nanoparticles and hence the nanoparticles eventually accumulate in the MPS organs, such as liver and spleen.Understanding of the endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic application.