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White bars indicate estimated admixture times with 90% CIs (scale on the left y axis); color bars denote the admixture proportion (fraction of Asian ancestry) in each population as indicated by the y axis on the right.) PCA of individuals representing 15 populations.
( clusters with the proportions represented by the relative lengths of the three different colors.
1 and 2) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the extent to which the genetic ancestry in this region reflects Austronesian or pre-Austronesian migration(s).
Black lines separate individuals from different populations.Because the time of the entry of the Austronesians into Indonesia has been dated by both archaeological and linguistic evidence to about 4,000 y ago (8, 9), estimating the time of the admixture between Asian and Papuan ancestry in East Indonesian groups could, therefore, distinguish between a pre-Austronesian vs. However, none of the previous genetic studies of East Indonesia analyzed sufficiently dense genome-wide data to estimate the admixture time, which relies on recombination information extracted from throughout the genome.In this study, we use high-density genome-wide SNP data to estimate the amount and time of admixture in East Indonesian groups to determine if the admixture time corresponds to Austronesian or pre-Austronesian expansions. (A) PCA of individuals representing 15 populations.(C) Geographical distribution of genetic components. Measurements obtained for the Molucca and the Nusa Tenggara populations are shown by blue horizontal lines.Red vertical lines indicate the time estimate, and shaded boxes define the CIs.This process is often termed the Austronesian expansion, which represents a complex demographic process of interaction between migrating Neolithic farmers and indigenous Mesolithic hunter–gatherer communities, a frequent phenomenon in world prehistory.